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Studying Various Types of Rape and Their Impacts on Victims, Physically and Mentally

National Commission for Women's Release (CATAHU) in 2018 reported from around 350 thousand total cases of sexual violence against women throughout 2017, 1,288 of which were rape cases. A bitter reality to swallow. However, this shows that rape is indeed undeniably still the biggest terror that haunts world women.

The amount above may only represent cases that are forwarded to the authorities. It is possible that there are still people out there who are reluctant, afraid, or even totally unwilling to report the sexual violence they experience for a variety of reasons.

Is that rape?

Rape or rape has a broad definition.

Defines rape as an attack in the form of forced sexual relations by inserting a penis, fingers, or other objects into the vagina, rectum (anus), or the victim's mouth. Attacks are carried out by manipulation, violence / threats of violence, detention, psychological distress, abuse of power, or by taking advantage of a forced environment.

Meanwhile, the definition of rape in article 285 of the Criminal Code is much narrower. Rape according to law is an act of intercourse based on threats or violence committed against women who are not legal wives. This means that according to article 285 of the Criminal Code, rape is only limited to the act of forcing penis penetration into the vaginal opening by men to women. Beyond that, it is not considered rape. This definition also excludes the possibility of men becoming victims.

In general, it can be concluded that rape is an act of forcing sexual relations in any form that you do not agree consciously; out of whim or contrary to personal will. That is, a sexual activity that is initially mutually agreed upon by both parties can turn into a rape when one refuses or asks to stop in the middle, but the offender is against the will of the victim while continuing the sexual relationship.

The term "rape" generally only describes penetration of the penis into the vagina. But in reality, all forms of sexual activity that do not involve penetration but are still forced also include rape.

Anyone can be a victim and a perpetrator

We may have assumed that rape can only be done by men to women. Rape can actually be done and experienced by anyone indiscriminately. Rape is a form of violence that does not know gender, age, socio-economic status, place and time. Nor do you care about what clothes or makeup is worn at that time.

Men and women, young or old, healthy and sick, family members, close relatives, and foreigners can both be victims and perpetrators. Women can be rapists. So do men who can be victims.

Group rape occurs when two or more actors act together to take turns penetrating the same victim.

There are many types of rape

The forms of rape can be grouped based on who did, who the victims were, and what specific actions occurred in the rape. Some types of rape may be considered far more severe than others.

Judging from the type, the act of rape is divided into:

1. Rape on people with disabilities

This type of rape is carried out by healthy people in people with disabilities, namely people who have physical / developmental, intellectual, and / or mental limitations / abnormalities. People with disabilities may have limited abilities or cannot express their consent to engage in sexual activity.

This type of rape also includes acts of rape of healthy but unconscious people. For example when the victim sleeps, faints, or coma. Also included in a semi-conscious state, for example when drunk due to the influence of drugs (side effects of legal drugs, narcotics, or drugs that are intentionally included) or alcoholic beverages.

Even if the victim is silent and does not resist, if sexual intercourse is forced and happens beyond his will, it still means rape. These substances inhibit a person's ability to approve or resist sexual acts, and sometimes even prevent them from remembering the event.

2. Rape by family members

Rape that occurs when the perpetrator and the victim both have a blood relationship or are called incest rape. Incest rape can occur in a nuclear family or extended family. For example, between father and son, brother and sister, uncle / aunt and nephew, male or female (extended family), or between cousins.

According to CATAHU National Commission for Women, father, brother and uncle including the three most perpetrators of sexual violence in the family. Even so, incest also includes rape carried out by stepfamily members.

In most cases, family rape involves minors.

3. Rape on minors (statutory rape)

Rape statutory is the act of rape by adults in children who are not even 18 years old. This can also include sexual relations between underage children.

In Europe, rape and / or sexual violence against children is regulated by the Child Protection Act number 35 of 2014 in article 76D.

4. Rape in relationships (partner rape)

This type of rape occurs among two individuals who are in a relationship, including in courtship or in the household.

Rape in courtship is not specifically regulated by Europe law. However, marital rape is regulated by Law No. 23 of 2004 on the Elimination of Domestic Violence Article 8 (a) and Article 66.

Forcing penetration in any way remains classified as rape, regardless of whether the victim has had sex with a rapist beforehand or not.

5. Rape between relatives

During this time we might assume that rape can only occur between strangers. For example, when intercepted at midnight by unknown persons.

However, acts of rape are very likely to occur between two people who already know each other. No matter how long I have only known for a while. For example playmates, school friends, neighbors, office friends, and others.

Two of the three rape cases were carried out by someone who was known to the victim.

What are the effects of rape on victims?

Rape is any form of sexual intercourse that can result in physical injury and emotional and psychological trauma. Each victim can respond to traumatic events in their own ways. Therefore, the impact of rape can vary from person to person. The effects of trauma can be mild to serious and fatal, and occur in the short term or for years after experiencing them.

Physical impact

After experiencing rape, of course there are some injuries or physical effects that can be experienced by the victim. Are as follows:

  • Bruises or injuries to the body
  • Bleeding in the vagina or anus after penetration
  • Difficulty walking
  • Pain in the vagina, rectum, mouth, or other body parts
  • Broken or dislocated bones
  • Infection and sexually transmitted diseases
  • Unwanted pregnancy
  • Eating disorders
  • Dyspareunia (pain during or after sexual intercourse)
  • Vaginismus, the vaginal muscles twitch and close on their own
  • Recurrent tension headaches
  • Trembling
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Insomnia
  • Dead
  • Hyperarousal

Psychological and emotional impact

Besides being physically injured, rape victims can also experience extraordinary psychological and emotional trauma.

The psychological impact of rape is generally in the form of shock (numbness), withdrawal (isolation) because of shame or fear, depression, aggression and agitation (irritability), easily shocked and surprised, paranoid, disorientation (confusion and daze), dissociation disorder, PTSD , to anxiety or panic disorder. However, between one person and another can experience different effects depending on how each responds to the traumatic event.

Rape victims can also experience rape trauma syndrome or Rape Trauma Syndrome (RTS). RTS is a derivative form of PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) that generally affects female victims. Symptoms can include a mixture of physical injury and the impact of psychological trauma. It also includes flashbacks of these devastating events and an increase in the frequency of nightmares.

Departing from the severity of the effects of rape that may be experienced, many survivors also have a tendency to commit suicide. They think that suicide is the best way to end all their suffering.

What to do if you are raped

After experiencing rape, the response that you first feel might be panic, fear, shame, or shock. Everything you feel is normal. Maybe you also feel reluctant to immediately report to the authorities. This is fine. After experiencing a great trauma, a person usually needs time to accept reality and want to share what has been experienced.

It might be scary to try to be open with others about the event. However, it is important to continue to consider getting medical assistance as soon as possible. If possible, immediately visit the nearest hospital ER. The doctor will carry out a series of tests and treatments to prevent possible spread of sexually transmitted diseases or the risk of pregnancy.

Doctors and professional health care workers will handle all your medical needs while maintaining confidentiality. They will not contact the police without your permission. If you decide to report the police, immediately request a forensic examination. As soon as possible. It's good at least 1 day after the event to get accurate care and diagnosis.

Try not to bathe or wash or change your clothes immediately after sexual violence has occurred. Cleaning yourself and clothes can destroy forensic evidence that might be important for police investigations.

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